The introduction of economic sanctions by the EU, the United States and a number of other countries forced the Russian Federation to switch to a strategy of import substitution and support of the domestic producer. The policy of import substitution gives positive results.
A critical analysis of the situation shows that Russian producers not only meet the needs of the domestic market, but also increase their export capacities. According to preliminary data of the FCS of Russia in January-June, 2017, exports from Russia amounted to more than $167 billion, 57 billion (about 34%) of which was non-primary non-energy exports. Compared to the same period in 2016, growth is noticeable: total exports increased by 29% (more than $ 37 billion), and non-primary non-energy exports - by 19% ($ 9 billion). According to the Russian Export Center, the contribution to the export growth of the following sectors is worth mentioning separately: metal products (45% of the growth in the structure of non-primary non-energy exports), food (16%) and chemical products (15%). The REC report also noted that «the positive dynamics of exports for the same period of the previous year is fixed for the eighth month in a row, growth was achieved in many types of products, primarily due to higher world prices, but also due to the expansion of physical volumes of supplies» (Analytical report «Development of the general and non-primary export of Russia in January-June 2017. «JSC» Russian Export Center», Moscow, August 2017).
The output to fundamentally different export capacities is noted in many industries. Thus, at the conference «Autoevolution 2016», assessments were made on the achievement of a mark of 110,000 cars by Russian exports in 2017, the Ministry of Economic Development in this situation expects an increase in exports to 300,000 cars in 2020, and this is only one of the approximate successful development of Russian exports.
It is worth acknowledging that the import substitution in Russia was approached seriously – for example, RF Government Decree No. 785 of August 4, 2015, established a special Government Commission on import substitution, and, as practice shows, it consistently implements the policy of import substitution. So, for example, concrete steps are visible in the report on the decisions following the meeting of the Commission of May 16, 2017. The protocol specifies, inter alia, the instructions of the Ministry of Industry and Energy and the Ministry of Energy «together with the organizations of the fuel and energy complex, to submit to the Government of the Russian Federation, by June 28, 2017, proposals for organizing the mass production of GTD-110 M gas turbines based on the formation of a consolidated order by companies- consumers and possible conclusion of a special investment contract «or jointly with the Ministry of Finance to submit» proposals to the Government of the Russian Federation for stimulating production Islands of Russian products to the fuel and energy complex and oil and gas chemistry, including the use of a special investment vehicle contract (http://government.ru/orders/selection/401/27928/).
It should be noted that export support has become a real leitmotiv of the activities of the highest state authorities of Russia in recent years. For example, in the same year as the Governmental Commission for Import Substitution, the Russian Export Center Joint-Stock Company was established, and Federal Law No. 82-FZ of the Bank for Development, dated May 17, 2007, introduced an important article 3.1 establishing , in particular, that «the functions for the implementation of export support ... are implemented by Vnesheconombank, the joint stock company Russian Export Center ..., the joint stock company Russian Agency for Insurance of Export Credits and Investments, the State Specialized Russian m Export-Import Bank (Joint Stock Company) and its subsidiaries business entities». Support for exports has become a key point in many acts of the Government of the Russian Federation, including those that were adopted before the introduction of sanctions against Russia. Thus, the Government of the Russian Federation establishes measures to support exports in the following areas:
–the building materials industry (Order of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 868-r of 10.05.2016);
–the industry of children’s goods (Order of the Government of the Russian Federation of June 11, 2013 ?962-r);
–Information technology industry (Order of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 2036-r dated 01.11.2013).
Also, the Government adopted separate acts on the types of products that will receive special state support for the development of their exports:
–products in the agricultural machinery industry (Order of the Government of the Russian Federation of August 31, 2017 No. 1876-r);
–products of the automotive industry (Order of the Government of the Russian Federation of August 31, 2017 No. 1877-r);
–products of railway engineering (Order of the Government of the Russian Federation of August 31, 2017 No. 1878-r).
A separate act in July 2017 approved a list of products (as goods, and work and services), support for exports which is carried out by federal executive bodies in priority order. This, in particular (in accordance with the Order of the Government of the Russian Federation of 12 July 2017 No. 1473-r):
–Products of civil engineering.
–Products of the chemical industry (with the exception of mineral fertilizers, polymers and monomers in primary forms).
–Products of agro-industrial complex.
–Products of the pharmaceutical and medical industry.
–Metalworking industry products.
–Products of the timber industry complex (except for untreated timber).
–Light industry products.
–Consumer goods (printing products, toys and children’s goods, hygiene products, household products made of ceramics and glass (dishes, containers, etc.), jewelry, glasses, musical instruments, furniture, lighting equipment, haberdashery, stationery).
–Works and services in the following areas:
–maintenance and repair;
– information and computer services.
It is interesting to note that the list of countries has also been separately approved, and the state guarantees are exported to industrial products. So, in the list of Order No. 103n of the Ministry of Finance of September 25, 2014 there are, for example, the Republic of Belarus, Hungary, Croatia, Turkey, Portugal, and in the list of 56 states.
Support for exports is also included in the forecast of the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation for the long-term socio-economic development of the Russian Federation for the period until 2030. Also, the issue of export support in the Far East has been developed separately: in particular, the order of the Ministry of Regional Development of Russia of 04.07.2016 №144 «On approval of the form of the agreement on granting a subsidy from the federal budget of the Autonomous Non-Profit Organization» Agency of the Far East for attracting investment and export support « ensuring its activities».
Also do not forget that the purchase of foreign goods is strictly regulated by the RF law on the contract system. In particular, Part 3 of Article 14 Federal Law No. 44-FZ of 05.04.2013 «On the contract system in the procurement of goods, works and services for the provision of state and municipal needs» provides that the Government of Russia may establish «a ban on the admission of goods occurring from foreign states, works and services, respectively, performed by foreign persons, and restrictions on the admission of these goods, works, services for the purpose of procurement «to protect the foundations of the constitutional system, ensure the country’s defense and bout their dangers State to protect the domestic market of the Russian Federation, the development of the national economy, support Russian producers. It should be recalled that at the moment such prohibitions have been established, for example, with respect to goods originating from foreign countries for the purpose of purchasing goods for the needs of the country’s defense and the security of the state, except for cases when the production of such goods is not available in the territory of the Russian Federation (Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation of 14.01.2017 №9 «On the establishment of a ban on the admission of goods originating in foreign countries, works (services) performed (provided) by foreign persons, for the purposes of procurement of goods, works (services) for the needs of national defense and security of the state» - 132 names of the goods, including, among other things, clothing, lathes, cables and accessories listed in the annex to the document).
Also, to support Russian producers and protect the domestic market, it is prohibited to procure certain types of engineering products originating in foreign countries if they do not meet certain requirements. Thus, RF Government Resolution No. 656 of July 14, 2014 «On the establishment of a ban on the admission of certain types of mechanical engineering goods originating from foreign countries for the purposes of procurement for ensuring state and municipal needs» contains an appendix of 55 items of goods that are generally procured exclusively from Russian manufacturers.
Thus, it can be concluded that Russian industry, even under new sanctions from Western countries, is not only able to provide the necessary level of production for the domestic market, but also increases its export potential. The state, in turn, began to develop a long-term export support program long before the introduction of sanctions, but with their introduction, moving to the policy of import substitution, it has become even more active to develop this direction of activity. For these reasons, the brand «Made in Russia» is gaining weight in the international arena, domestic producers are reoriented from the «relatively comfortable» CIS market to the markets of other partners - in particular, Russia’s BRICS partners (the People’s Republic of China, India, Brazil and the South- African Republic). Russia is also actively developing various economic integration associations – primarily, the Eurasian Economic Community.